A person who has joined the Imam whilst the Imam is in Ruku will be regarded as one who has performed the complete Rak'at. Once the Imam has completed the Ruku and a person then joins the Imam, he has missed a Rak'at. Such a person is known as a Masbooq.
A person who has missed any Rak'at and then joined the Jama'at, he should continue the Salaat with the Imam to the end. Once the Imam turns to say the Second Salaam, the Masbooq should stand up and complete the missed number of Rak’ats.
If the Masbooq has missed only one (1) Raka'at, he should stand up, read the Thana, Ta’awwuz, Tasmiyah, Surah Fatiha and another Surah and thereafter complete the Salaat.
If the Masbooq has missed two (2) Raka'ats in Fajr, Zuhr, Asr or Esha, he should complete both the Rak'ats by reciting Surah Fatiha and another Surah in both the Rak’ats.
If a person has missed two (2) Rak'ats in Maghrib Salaat, then after completing the first Rak'at he will make Qa’dah, read Tashahhud and then stand up for the second Rak'at. After reciting Surah Fatiha and another Surah, he will complete the Salaat.
If Three (3) Rak'ats were missed in Zuhr, Asr or Esha, the Masbooq should stand up and read Surah Fatiha and a Surah in the first Raka'at, thereafter make Ruku and Sajdah but before standing up for the second Rak'at, make Qa’dah (sit down), read Tashahhud and then stand up for the second Rak'at.
In the second Rak'at recite Surah Fatiha and another Surah, complete the second Rak'at and without sitting for Tashahhud, stand up for the third Rak'at. In the third Rak'at read only Surah Fatiha and complete the Salaat.
If a person has missed all the Rak'ats of any Salaat, then he should repeat the whole Salaat after the Imam has said the Salaam except that he should not raise his hands to say Allahu Akbar (Takbeer) in the first Rak'at.
And Allah Knows Best
Shafique Jakhura (Mufti) MD Mangera (Mufti)