Luqman's (AS) full name was Luqman bin Anqa bin Sadun and his sons name was Tharan. Luqman was a wise and righteous man of African descent and was a distinguished man among his people. He was either from the area of Ethophia (Habshah), Nuba (south of Egypt) or Sudan. He was believed to live during the time of Prophet Dawood u. An entire chapter of the Quran is named after this great personality viz. Surah Luqman-Chapter 31.
The advices given by Luqman (AS) to his son are contained in verses 12 to 19 of Surah Luqman.
1. Giving Thanks
“And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman wisdom and religious understanding saying: "Give thanks to Allah," and whoever gives thanks, he gives thanks for his own self. And whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is All Wealthy, Worthy of all praise. “ (Surah 31 Verse 12)
The importance of expressing gratitude is learnt from this verse. All good must be attributed to the favours and mercy of Allah Ta'ala.
2. Ascribing partner to Allah Ta'ala
“And (remember) when Luqman said to his son whilst was advising him: "O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.” (Surah 31 Verse 13)
We are advised to obey and worship Allah Ta'ala and not to associate anything with Him. Shirk or making a partner with Allah Ta'ala is a great transgression.
3. Duty to Parents
“And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and good to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon that weakness - and his weaning is in two years – be grateful to Me and to your parents, - unto Me is the final destination.” (Surah 31 Verse 14)
Caring for and obeying one's parents is a foremost duty after the worship of Allah Ta'ala. One can never repay one's parents for the sacrifices and difficulty they undergo for their children. Disobedience to parents is a means of great deprivation in this world and the next.
4. Obey parents for Allah Ta'ala
“…But if they (parents) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not, but treat them kindly in the world” (Surah 31 Verse 15)
Notwithstanding difficulty or rejection that one may face from parents, no dissension must be shown to them at all times even if they deviate from Allah Ta'ala's order.
5. Who to follow
“…and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.” (Surah 31 Verse 15)
Here guidance is given on the path of life that one should follow. Keep the company of the pious and those who remind one of Allah Ta'ala.
6. Be cautious with actions
"O my son! Be it anything equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, be it in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle (in bringing out that grain), Well-Aware (of its place).” (Surah 31 Verse 16)
This verse emphasizes to us that even small deeds, good or bad will receive its reward or punishment and all will be brought out by Allah Ta'ala on the Day of Judgment. Hence we should be vigilant about our words and ways and be more careful of the consequences of our behavior.
7. Establish Prayer
"O my son! Establish Salah and offer it with perfection, enjoin good acts, and forbid people from wrongdoing and vice - and bear with patience whatever befalls you. Verily! These are important commandments (ordered by Allah) (Surah 31 Verse 17)
The lessons here include encouragement on establishing Salah on time and offering it with devotion. This will lead one to do good and promote good ways and forbid evil to the best of one's ability and be patient while doing this because not everybody will respond positively. Be patient as not everyone will agree with your good ways. Be patient and remain steadfast.
8. Avoid pride and arrogance
“And do not turn your face away from men arrogantly, nor walk through the earth with pride. Verily, Allah does not like the arrogant boaster.” (Surah 31 Verse 18)
Development of good manners and sound character is vital for a Muslim. One should be gentle, helpful, and treat people with respect. Be humble and avoid arrogance.
9. Adopt moderation
“And be moderate in your walking…” (Surah 31 Verse 19)
One sign of pride is to walk 'high' and think one is above others. One should not walk too fast or too slow, but adopt humility in all actions
10. Speak in a soft tone
“… lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the voice (braying) of the ass.” (Surah 31 Verse 19)
One should not raise the voice unless it is absolutely necessary. Always be soft spoken and speak to people affectionately.
Luqman (AS) was once asked how he achieved his wisdom, he replied, by practicing three things:
1. Truthfulness in speech
2. Returning trusts
3. Abstaining from futile speech and actions. (Mishkat)
Ibn Umar (R) narrates that Rasulullah r, “Luqman the Wise use to say, when something is entrusted to the care of Allah, He protects it.” (Ahmad)
May Allah Ta'ala grant us the ability to act upon these valuable advices. Aameen.
Dua for wisdom & knowledge
الّٰهُمَّ أَعِنِّيْ بِالْعِلْمِ وَزَيِّنِّيْ بِالْحِلْمِ وَأَكْرِمْنِيْ بِالتَّقْوٰى وَجَمِّلْنِيْ بِالْعَافِيَةِ
Oh Allah! Enrich us via Knowledge. Oh Allah! Adorn us with a sense of humility/gentleness. Oh Allah! Deem us noble with Taqwa/Piety. Oh Allah! Beautify us by keeping us in a state of well being/healthy
اَلَّهُمَّ أَرِنَا الْحَقَّ حَقًّا، وَارْزُقْنَا اتِّبَاعَه، وَأَرِنَا الْبَاطِلَ بَاطِلًا، وَارْزُقْنَا اجْتِنَابَه
“O Allah - show us the right way as right and allow us to follow it and show us evil as evil and help us to abstain from it”
The Wisdom of Luqman (AS)
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