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It is not permissible to assume the post of mutawalli for the sake of honour and self-esteem. If one takes up this responsibility with this intention, then he would have indulged himself in such a calamity, from which it would be impossible to attain salvation in the hereafter. To assume the responsibility of mutawali it is imperative for one to possess the required qualities and capabilities. If one lacks these, it is advised that he relinquish this sacred duty and entrust it to those more able and deserving.

A mutawalli must comply with the following conditions:

1. He must have the right of trusteeship. This right, in sequence of priority, goes first to the person who made the endowment (waqf). Second is the person appointed by the endower himself. Next is the Muslim ruler or the appointed Muslim governor of the district. Thereafter this right rests with the Muslim Judge (Qaadhi), then finally with the person whom the inhabitants of the locality choose. (Shaami, Book of Waqf - Page 384 / Vol. 5)

2. He must be a sane Muslim.

3. He must be well acquainted with the regulations pertaining to endowment and trust (waqf).

4. He must have a practical and theoretical knowledge concerning the affairs of managing the endowment (waqf). (Durrul Mukhtaar & Shaami) This means that he should not be so ignorant as to be unable to differentiate between a capable and non-capable candidate for appointment as lmaam or Muazzin. It should not be that he fails to consult learned people and disassociate himself from senior Ulama in related matters. He must also not be so busy that he is unavailable to attend to the affairs of the trust.

5. He must be a trustworthy person, taking care not to misappropriate a single cent.

6. He must not involve himself in such futile engagements wherein people destroy their wealth, like gambling and bribery.

7. He must be an "Allah-fearing" and pious person - not a faasiq, i.e. an open sinner who indulges in major sins such as drinking, adultery, dealing in interest, shaving the beard, neglecting salaah, discarding the fardh salaah with jamaat (congregation), acquiring livelihood by unlawfw means, etc. Thus, if any trustee is found to be involved in such actions it will be incumbent (waajib) to dismiss him from office, even though he may the endower himself. (Durrul Mukhtaar with Shaami , Vol 5 - Pg. 385)

8. He should not be one who requested for the position as a trustee.

If any close relative of the endower complies with the above conditions he should be appointed as a trustee. However, if all these qualities are not found in any individual then such a person cannot be a mutawalli nor can he be appointed as one, since this will constitute an act of sin.


1. He should safeguard the income and property of the Masjid, meeting the necessary expenses and avoiding unnecessary expenditure. These days funds are generally squandered on expenses which have no importance in the shariah, but are merely spent because unenlightened trustees deem them to be imperative. These people should fear Allah, for on the day of Qiyaamah they will be accountable for every cent. The mutawallis of the masjid must take the onus upon themselves to consult the Ulama, at the first opportunity, regarding the detailed rulings pertaining to these expenses and the running of the masiid in general.

2. He must keep a proper record of all the income and expenditure of the masjid.

3. According to the best of means, a proper Imaam must be appointed. If however, instead of a competent person, an unfit and inefficient person is appointed to serve the community and deen at large then the warning sounded in the following Hadith should be heeded to : It is narrated that whosoever appoints someone to a post whereas within his sphere of influence there are more deserving persons, he has betrayed Allah, His Nabi (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) and the Muslims in general. (Fathul Qadeer)

4. He must appoint such a Muazzin who is well acquainted with the times of Salaah (and the correct pronunciation of the azaan).

5. He should give due priority to the maintenance of the masjid building as well as it's other associated facilities. Security should also be given due consideration.

6. Cleanliness, lighting and water facilities must also be adequately arranged.

7. It is of paramount importance for the Mutawalli to ensure the performance of the five daily salaah in congregation and always strive towards increasing the number of musallis (in the masjid). Each mutawalli must look sincerely into these duties and exert his utmost efforts towards achieving these ends.

It is noticed that the mutawallis of the various masaajid usually do not fully discharge their responsibilities, hence becoming sinners. Special care must be exercised in the appointment of an Imaam, because due to any. shortcomings in this regard, thousands more will mushroom which can lead the Muslims to deviation.

If someone is an Imaam it does not entitle his son to the same. Since Imaamat is not a legacy, the most competent and deserving person should be appointed.

(The following are the cardinal requirements for an Imaam)

1. He should be well versed in relevant masaa'il Pertaining to Imaamat and salaah).

2. He must have mastered tajweed rules (to facilitate correct recitation of qiraat in salaah).

3. He should adhere to the faraaidh, waajibaat, sunnah and mustahabaat.

4. He must refrain from haraam and makroohaat.

If the correct choice of an Imaam cannot be made, a reliable Aalim should be asked to interview a potential candidate. To use only a beautiful voice as a yard-stick in choosing an Imaam is pure ignorance. However, if together with the above cardinal requirements, the Imaam also possesses a beautiful voice then this will be an added asset.

Once the right Imaam has been appointed, due respect must be shown to him. He must not be considered as a personal subordinate of the mutawalli. He is the leader and should be followed. This should always be kept in mind. Such a salary should be stipulated for him that will enable him to lead a decent and peaceful life. Stinginess should never be shown with regard to this issue. If there is a need, other expenses should be curtailed but a low and unreasonable salary should never be given to the Imaam or Muazzin. If negligence prevails, it should be borne in mind that man is often forced to fulfil his basic needs by other means. The Muslim jurists (rahimahumullah) have stated that if somebody commits himself to the service of a community, it is waajib upon them that they meet his expenses.

When the Imaam stands up to reform the masses, it is incumbent upon the mutawallis to jointly shoulder the cart and assist him to achieve his religious goal. In the event of the ignorant public raising objections and undue criticism against the Imaam. It is the duty of the mutawallis to stop them. If people disapprove of his propagation of the truth and the musallis decrease, they should first be made to understand. If they persist (in their disapproval) then they should be ignored, because it is better to have a few abiding to the sunnah and shariah rather than a deviated crowd.

If any Imaam does anything contrary to the shariah or introduces innovations, then he should be dismissed. The Imaam  'must have freedom of expression, he should never be hindered by the mutawallis. Some mutawallis dislike and are offended by the Imaam's mentioning of any vices or faults in which they are involved, thus they prevent the Imaam from such lectures. Such an attitude leads to severe sins. They will also be considered amongst those subjected to the severe warnings given in the following aayaat: "They prevent others_from the path of Allah.'

'Who can be more unjust than he who prevents the name of Allah been taken in the house of Allah.'

The mutawalli should never interfere in the Imaam's ibaadat, lectures and religious services. According to the shariah the mutawalli has no right of intervention. His responsibility is to see to the proper maintenance and functioning of the masjid, as mentioned above.

If the mutawalli adopts and adheres to the above mentioned advices, with a true spirit, then it is highly believed that he will be amongst the good-named mutawallis in the hereafter and be absolved of the great responsibilities which he shouldered. He will be justly rewarded, Inshaa-Allah.

( The above has been extracted from the book - Khutbaat-e-Mouizat)

Prepared under the auspices of: Sheikhul Hadeeth Hadbrat Moulaana Fazlur Rahman Saheb



Perhaps it is due to this sad state of affairs that we observe that such people are appointed as trustees who possess wealth and power, even though they do not perform a single Salaat in the Musjid. The result of this is, that daily we find disputes and quarrels in the Musjid which leads to court-cases and non-Muslim judges passing judgement in matters of religion. In reality as the Imaamat of the Musjid is handed to the Ulama, in the same way the trusteeship of the Musjid should also be in the control of learned and pious people, who are divinely discharged to lead the Ummah. The Qur’aan bears testimony to this issue in these words:

"He only shall tend Allah's sanctuaries who believe in Allah and the last day, and observes proper worship and pays the poor due, and fear none but Allah.” (Surah Tawbah 18.)

It is incumbent upon the residents of locality to remove a dishonest Mutawalli (Trustee) from office otherwise they will be guilty of sin. It is incumbent upon the residents of a locality to remove a dishonest Mutawalli (Trustee) from office, otherwise they will be guilty of sin. (Fatawa Khairiyyah)

Hadhrat Ibn Abbas Radhiallahu anhu narrated that Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: "He who appoints a man in charge of the affairs of Muslims whilst in that Community there is a Person more versed in the Quraan and Hadith has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the Muslim community." (Izalatul Khifa)

"It is not permissible to appoint a Faasiq as a Mutawalli.” (Fatawa Ibn Taimiyyah)

"To appoint an ignorant and a Faasiq person to a position of Trust (e.g. Mutawalli) is to show honour to him whereas the Shariah has prohibited the honouring of Fussaq (rebellious and shameless sinners)." (Shami)

Rasulullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: "When positions of Trust are handed unqualified (Islamically) persons then await the to Final Hour." (Bukhari Shareef)


One of the tragedies of the present times prevalent in many countries especially in communist countries, and parts of India is the law declaring Musjids national monuments and locking them up, due to which either those Muslims are completely neglected and deserted, or they are visited by tourists, and the performance of prayers and recital of the Quraan is prohibited therein, whereas Musjids are dedicated for the worship of Allah and they cannot be used for any of the above purposes. Stopping the devotees from praying and reciting the Quraan is tantamount to the crime of demolishing the Musjid.

It is mentioned in the Quraan: "And who doeth greater wrong then he who forbiddeth the entry to the sanctuaries of Allah, lest his name should be mentioned therein, and striveth for their ruin? As for such it was never meant that they should enter them except in fear. Theirs in the world of Ignomirny and theirs in the hereafter is an awful doom.” (Surah Baqarah: 114)

The commentators have interpreted "striveth for their ruin" to mean all forms of obstruction, desertion and neglect.

Allama Raashid Rada Misri Rahmatullaahi alaih writes that the meaning of the above verse is to stop or obstruct the worship, remembrance of Allah in any form.

From the above it is concluded that declaring Musjids national monuments is tantamount to stopping the worship of Allah therein, and cannot be tolerated under any circumstances.It should also be remembered that a Musjid built on proper endowed (waqf) ground with the spirit of sincerity and piety will always remain a Musjid, and it will always be used only for the worship, remembrance and glorification of Allah and it will not be used for the worship of anything besides of Allah, as the Qur'aan says:

"These Musjids are for Allah so do not call upon anyone besides Allah therein" (Surah Jinn)

It is not permissible for Muslims to withdraw and relinquish their rights over a Musjid and allow it to be declared a national monument and used for the purpose of tourist attractions, or to exchange a musjid for another place because the house of Allah cannot be sold, exchanged, locked, demolished, or changed into any other type of building.

[ The Musjid – It’s Role and Etiquette ]

The end of the financial year is a time for stocktaking. It is a time when profits or losses are calculated. Allah forbid, if the stocktaking exercise reveals a loss, it results in great concern and anxiety. Meetings are held, consultants are approached for advice, “belt tightening” measures are implemented and a host of other strategies are adopted to cover the loss and make a profit. If it appears that the loss is due to pilferage, extra security measures are implemented. In short, the stocktaking spurs one to action.

While much effort is put into ascertaining the profits and losses of this world, how often do we take stock of our profits and losses of the Hereafter? Are we certain we are not in a loss situation? We would only be able to truly ascertain this after taking stock of our lives – of our beliefs, actions, character, monetary dealings and social life.



Hazrat Umar (R.A.) is reported to have said: “Take an account of yourself before you are taken to account (on the Day of Judgement) and adorn yourself for your appearance in the court of Allah, for verily the giving of an account on the Day of Judgement is lighter for the one who took stock of himself in the world.” (Tirmizi)

Many of the pious predecessors used to daily take an account of the day’s deeds before going to bed. During the day they noted down all the actions they had performed in that day, the words they had spoken and even what they thought about. At night they would bring out their notebook and study the actions of the day. Everything recorded therein was thereafter responded to accordingly — if something deserved shukr (gratitude), such as having been able to perform any righteous action, or having received any good, they expressed shukr. If something demanded repentance and seeking forgiveness, they immediately did so (Risaalatul Mustarshideen, Pg 80).

While the ideal is to take stock daily, the least is that occasionally one takes stock of all aspects of one’s life.

The stocktaking should commence with the level of one’s Imaan. How strong is it? Does it make one jump out of bed and proceed for Fajr Salaah to the Musjid? Is one’s Imaan saving one from all haraam, such as gossip, lying, casting lustful glances, engaging in haraam business transactions, etc? If the stocktaking reveals that one’s Imaan is not strong enough to save oneself from sin and disobedience, urgent steps must be taken to strengthen it. Imaan is strengthened by associating with the pious, being in the gatherings of Deen and striving in the Path of Allah Ta’ala. This must be done before the “business” shuts down – that is before death.



Then take stock of one’s ibaadah. Ask oneself, “Am I performing my Salaah? Am I performing it with Jama`ah in the Musjid (for males)? Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “The one who misses a single Salaah, it is as if he has lost his entire family and wealth!” Am I incurring such losses? Am I performing my Salaah correctly, in the sunnah manner, with complete humility and devotion, or is it a haphazard Salaah? If it needs improvement, set up an urgent “meeting” with an experienced and learned person to rectify one’s salaah and plug the losses being incurred by performing salaah which does not conform to the sunnah. Likewise, take an account of all the other acts of worship.

With great scrutiny, take stock of the attributes of Imaan. What is the level of Hayaa (modesty and shame) in my life? Is it increasing or decreasing? Is my dressing gradually becoming more immodest (shorter and tighter than it used to be)? Stake stock of one’s taqwa (consciousness of Allah Ta’ala), sincerity, humility, trust in Allah Ta’ala, love for Allah Ta’ala and Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) over every thing else, sabr (patience), shukr (gratitude), simplicity, the heart being free from love for the world and love for the ego, etc. Consider: Do I posses these qualities to the standard required? If not, I must immediately consult an expert to help me acquire them.


A crucial aspect to take stock of is one’s akhlaaq (character). Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) is reported to have said: “There is nothing weightier on the scales on the Day of Judgement (apart from obligatory actions) than good character.” Some of the aspects to consider in this regard are: Anger. Do I vent my anger over trivial things? A Sahaabi (R.A.)requested Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) for advice. “Do not get angry” was his reply. He repeated his request two more times. Each time he got the same reply. Take stock of one’s akhlaaq in the light of the words of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam): “Join ties of relationship with those who cut-off ties from you, forgive the one who has oppressed you and return ill-treatment with kindness.”

Take stock of one’s time. How much of my time is dedicated to earning the world? What percentage of my time is spent in striving for Deen? Also, take stock of one’s heart! Check: Is my heart filled with the love of Allah Ta`ala and His beloved Rasul (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) more than the love of others? Are my aspirations more for the Hereafter or for this world? Do I desire to become a true slave of Allah Ta`ala more than the desire to become wealthy or gain worldly positions and status? To what extent is the sunnah in my life? Allah forbid, is there a greater inclination towards the western lifestyle than the sunnah?

The abovementioned points are merely some of the aspects we should be taking stock of. One should consult an experienced, pious personality for guidance in these and all other aspects of one’s life.

The main objective of the stocktaking exercise is to propel one to action. Is one’s “balance sheet” indicating a loss? If yes, there is no time to procrastinate. It is necessary to take immediate steps to recover the loss. One should sincerely repent, fulfil outstanding Ibaadah, balance one’s time and dedicate a significant amount to Deen and towards becoming a true slave of Allah Ta`ala.

May Allah Ta`ala enable us to take stock of ourselves before our stock is taken. Aameen.

Isaac Newton is, as most will agree, the greatest physicist of all time.

At the very least, he is the undisputed father of modern optics, or so we are told at school where our textbooks abound with his famous experiments with lenses and prisms, his study of the nature of light and its reflection, and the refraction and decomposition of light into the colours of the rainbow.


Yet, the truth is rather greyer; and I feel it important to point out that, certainly in the field of optics, Newton himself stood on the shoulders of a giant who lived 700 years earlier.

For, without doubt, another great physicist, who is worthy of ranking up alongside Newton, is a scientist born in AD 965 in what is now Iraq who went by the name of al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham.

Most people in the West will never have even heard of him.


As a physicist myself, I am quite in awe of this man's contribution to my field, but I was fortunate enough to have recently been given the opportunity to dig a little into his life and work through my recent filming of a three-part BBC Four series on medieval Islamic scientists.

Modern methods

Popular accounts of the history of science typically suggest that no major scientific advances took place in between the ancient Greeks and the European Renaissance.


But just because Western Europe languished in the Dark Ages, does not mean there was stagnation elsewhere. Indeed, the period between the 9th and 13th Centuries marked the Golden Age of Arabic science.

Great advances were made in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, physics, chemistry and philosophy. Among the many geniuses of that period Ibn al-Haytham stands taller than all the others.

Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method.

As commonly defined, this is the approach to investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge, based on the gathering of data through observation and measurement, followed by the formulation and testing of hypotheses to explain the data.

This is how we do science today and is why I put my trust in the advances that have been made in science.


But it is often still claimed that the modern scientific method was not established until the early 17th Century by Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes.

There is no doubt in my mind, however, that Ibn al-Haytham arrived there first.

In fact, with his emphasis on experimental data and reproducibility of results, he is often referred to as the "world's first true scientist".

Understanding light

He was the first scientist to give a correct account of how we see objects.

He proved experimentally, for instance, that the so-called emission theory (which stated that light from our eyes shines upon the objects we see), which was believed by great thinkers such as Plato, Euclid and Ptolemy, was wrong and established the modern idea that we see because light enters our eyes.

What he also did that no other scientist had tried before was to use mathematics to describe and prove this process.

So he can be regarded as the very first theoretical physicist, too.

He is perhaps best known for his invention of the pinhole camera and should be credited with the discovery of the laws of refraction.

He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituent colours and studied shadows, rainbows and eclipses; and by observing the way sunlight diffracted through the atmosphere, he was able to work out a rather good estimate for the height of the atmosphere, which he found to be around 100km.

Enforced study

In common with many modern scholars, Ibn-al Haytham badly needed the time and isolation to focus on writing his many treatises, including his great work on optics.

He was given an unwelcome opportunity, however, when he was imprisoned in Egypt between 1011 and 1021, having failed a task set him by a caliph in Cairo to help solve the problem of regulating the flooding of the Nile.

While still in Basra, Ibn al-Haytham had claimed that the Nile's autumn flood waters could be held by a system of dykes and canals, thereby preserved as reservoirs until the summer's droughts.

But on arrival in Cairo, he soon realised that his scheme was utterly impractical from an engineering perspective.

Yet rather than admit his mistake to the dangerous and murderous caliph, Ibn-al Haytham instead decided to feign madness as a way to escape punishment.

This promptly led to him being placed under house arrest, thereby granting him 10 years of seclusion in which to work.

Planetary motion

He was only released after the caliph's death. He returned to Iraq where he composed a further 100 works on a range of subjects in physics and mathematics.

While travelling through the Middle East during, I interviewed an expert in Alexandria who showed me recently discovered work by Ibn al-Haytham on astronomy.

It seems he had developed what is called celestial mechanics, explaining the orbits of the planets, which was to lead to the eventual work of Europeans like Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton.

It is incredible that we are only now uncovering the debt that today's physicists owe to an Arab who lived 1,000 years ago.

By Professor Jim Al-Khalili

University of Surrey

By Sumayya bint Khalid

MADINAH-AL-MUNAWARRA, THE CITY OF THE PROPHET Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, IS ABUZZ with rumors.

One of the many sunnats of the Ambiyaa ( ‘alaihimus Salaam) is that of Hayaa – shame and modesty : a quality which is sorely missing in the lives of the majority of Muslims today and which should otherwise be an outstanding characteristic and feature of all Muslims, whether married or un-married.

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